Reproduction of a map of the city of Batavia c. Investment in these expeditions was a very high-risk venture, not only because of the usual dangers of piracy, disease and shipwreck, but also because the interplay of inelastic demand and relatively elastic supply  of spices could make prices tumble at just the wrong moment, thereby ruining prospects of profitability.
The aim of this research is to show that even when the methods of research could seem similar use of informants, interpretation of pictographic codes, etc. While the first were looking for proofs to show that indigenous were individuals who had to be colonized, the second were looking for evidences to show that they were part of a civilization with an important tradition.
During this period, European vessels sailed the seas around the world looking for new trade routes to develop and increase their power. In the specific case of the Spanish Monarchy, the supposed inferiority of the pagan indios was the best pretext to justify their conquest.
These views about the inferiority of indigenous were applied subsequently to the mestizos, criollos and to all those who were born in the Indias Occidentales, during the Spanish colonial period.
This article consists of two parts. In the first one, we have tried to analyse some of the main political motives and literary motifs that served to justify the American indigenous colonization: Providentialism; legendary archetypes; moral, religious and physiognomic inferiority.
Therefore, we have selected significant passages belonging to important chronicles recorded by intellectuals representing three different ethnic and social groups of in the colonial territories: The aim of this article is to compare the indigenous descriptions done by Europeans and by locals in order to define the intention behind their imageries and to demonstrate that the struggle between colonizing and decolonizing intentions were born in America since the early colonial period.
Indigenous studied by Europeans During the Spanish colonization of the Indias, hundreds of explorers, emissaries and missionaries wrote about the indios physical features and social interactions. These accounts tended to present unidimensional stereotypes of the indios. Providentialism as a factor of colonization In order to advocate for colonization, Spaniards chosen to describe indigenous as uncivilized beings, as instruments of the evil, whose malevolence needed to be eradicated by the pious Catholics priest and the brave Spanish conquerors.
Miniature of Moctezuma II. Stuart The support of Deity was an excellent excuse for colonizing the others; in fact, Christopher Columbus also tried to give a messianic touch to his expeditions. His discovery was legalized by the sense that God had intervened unmistakably and decisively in human history, once again in favour of sinful but chosen people like the Catholic Monarchs of Spain.
The great role of his heroic deed was similar to a crusade, since he was conquering a New Holy Land, even better, the new Terrestrial Paradise. With this intelligent comparison, Columbus attributed military and religious value to his expedition.
In addition, he also pointed the economic benefits that his enterprise could bring to Spain: I urged your Highness to spend all the profit of this, my enterprise, on the conquest of Jerusalem. And your Highness laughed. And said it would please you and even without that profit you would desire it .
In the growing success of the conquest and colonization, a sense of religion, racial and cultural superiority became a mark of Spanish hegemony. The superiority of Catholicism in comparison to the indigenous idolatry, as we have demonstrated, was an important factor to justify colonization.
Catholics Spanish defined themselves as saviours who were helping those inferior indigenous to stop practicing idolatry and become good Christians. According to Spanish, they were religiously superior that the indios, and their mission was to conquest them in order to rescue their souls.
Indigenous from America were introduced, to European readers, as monsters, cannibals, etc. In his text, the Italian relates historical events, as the conquest of Mexico and the discovery of the Pacific Ocean, but also devotes an important part of his account to portray the American landscape and the Native American, which are presented are fantastic beings, belonging to an extraordinary world, surrounded by fabulous creatures, etc.
The neighbouring district to Chiribichi is called Atata, and is remarkable for its salt ponds, as we have already said. While the Spaniards were exploring their banks, those who were looking towards the sea while their companions were playing games or resting, beheld an unrecognizable object floating on the waves.
It seemed to be a human head covered with hair and a thick beard, and with arms moving. I believe it was a Triton, on of those named by the fables of old, the trumpeters of Neptune .
Those imageries of indigenous, described as fabulous beings, were probably part of the conquerors self-publicity to demonstrate their braveness in subjugating legendary creatures, but it was also a cultural substrate of what Europeans thought.
Monsters have always been present in literature of exploration as long as it has existed. The travel tales of Pliny, Aethicus, Marco Polo and Herodotus contain account of monsters, which represent a perception of alterity like a synonymous of atrocity.
The implausible images that some of the chronicles did about the indios served to establish a Canon of American natives as individuals of different nature from European, and for that reason inferior. Indios described as good servants In the paragraphs 1. The first one is the intention of annihilating the indigenous culture, and the second is his desire of proving that indios were inclined to be good servants.
These two aspects can be observed in the following passage, taken from a letter to Lord Raphael Sanchez, treasurer of Ferdinand and Isabella, in which Columbus mentioned the discovery of the different Caribbean islands and the imposition of the Western conditions by the submission of the natives to the Spanish Monarchs by dint of language and religion.
I discovered many islands, thickly people, of which I took possession without resistance, in the name of our most illustrious Monarch […].
To the first of these islands, which is called by the Indians Guanahani, I gave the name of the blessed Saviour San Salvadorrelying upon whose protection I have reached this as well as the other islands; to each of these I also gave a name, ordering that one should be called Santa Maria de la Concepcion, another Fernandina, the third Isabella, the fourth Juana […].
The inhabitants of box sexes in this island […] go always naked as they were born. They bartered, like idiots, cotton and gold for fragments of bows, glasses, bottles and jars; which I forbade as being unjust, and myself gave them many beautiful and acceptable articles which I had brought with me, taking nothing for them in return; I this in order that I might the more easily conciliate them, that they might be led to become Christians, and be inclined to entertain a regard for the King and Queen, our Princes Columbus,This essay explores the ways that indigenous are described in the Chronicles written by Spanish and Hispanic American born chroniclers during the Spanish colonial period.
One of the major considerations that led to the nationalization of the fourteen major commercial banks of India in was the fact that banks, in general, had been negligent of the vital priority sectors of the economy, viz., agriculture and small-scale industries.
Jan 08, · India’s strategic moment 8 January Author: Editorial Board, East Asia Forum. Narendra Modi’s prime ministership had promised significant change in . With member countries, staff from more than countries, and offices in over locations, the World Bank Group is a unique global partnership: five institutions working for sustainable solutions that reduce poverty and build shared prosperity in developing countries.
Essay on Foreign Policy of India When India became independent on August 15, , Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru became her first Prime Minister. For long seventeen years (), he remained in power and during this long period he was the central figure of India’s foreign policy making.
Essay on India’s Foreign Trade during the Second World War: With the outbreak of the war in September, and its extension in scope and intensity, a number of factors affecting the volume, value, composition and direction of India’s foreign trade were brought into play.