In general, the LOD is taken as the lowest concentration of an analyte in a sample that can be detected, but not necessarily quantified, under the stated conditions of the test. The LOQ is the lowest concentration of an analyte in a sample that can be determined with acceptable precision and accuracy under the stated conditions of test. Sufficient analyte concentration must be present to produce an analytical signal that can reliably be distinguished from "analytical noise," the signal produced in the absence of analyte. Standard deviation of the blank, standard deviation of the ordinate intercept, or residual standard deviation of the linear regression b:
Blood transfusion has been very beneficial in relieving symptoms of anaemia but is associated with the risk of iron accumulation in tissues.
Excess iron, by Fenton chemistry enhances oxidative stress. Antioxidant vitamins and micronutrients supplementation quenches the oxidative stress and obviate tissue damage. The aim of Iron spectrophotometric lab study is to evaluate some antioxidant vitamins and micronutrients level and determine whether supplementation is necessary in the management of transfusion-dependent patients.
Blood samples were collected from patients with? Serum vitamins A and Emicronutrients Zn and Cuserum iron, ferritin and some haematological parameters Haemoglobin and Haematocrit were measured from the blood samples. There was significant increase in both serum iron and ferritin in the case subjects p 0.
Our study demonstrates that the level of antioxidant vitamins was low in the transfusion-dependent subjects. Therefore, its supplementation is necessary to improve the antioxidant defence system and obviate possible tissue damage.
One unit of red cell transfused provides more than times the normal iron intake through intestinal absorption Crichton and Ward, and there is Iron spectrophotometric lab major mechanism of its excretion from the body Hoffbrand et al.
Hence, in transfusion dependence, iron released from transfused red cells inevitably saturate storage sites Salibaet al. The rate of generation of ROS and its clearance by the antioxidant defence is delicately balanced Pamplona, and If the production exceeds the capacity of the antioxidant systems to scavenge these species, then oxidative stress ensues McCord, Withoxidative stress resulting from antioxidant depletion, peroxidative damage to cells is evident especially in tissues that stores iron such as liver, pituitary gland, pancreas and heart Brissotet al.
Antioxidantdefence systems are intimately involved in the prevention of cellular damage Asare et al. There are several enzymes and non-enzymatic defence such as vitamins and micronutrients Simseket al.
This defence is significantly diminished in oxidative stress Dhawan et al.
However, antioxidants supplementation has been reported to improve antioxidant status and precludeoxidative damage by eliminating ROS Prasad, ; Arruda et al. The ethical committees of the hospitals approved the study protocol and written informed consent was sought for and obtained from all participants.
The case subjects had history of continuous treatment with blood transfusionfor the pass at least two years. Demographic characteristics of the patients were obtained usinga structured questionnaire. About 5 mL of blood was aseptically collected from each subject and, 3 mL and 2 mL were separately dispensed into plain and EDTA bottles respectively.
The serum was harvested by centrifugation of the samples at RPM for 5 minutes and stored in cyro-vial at 0C until analysis. Serum ferritin was measured using immune-enzymatic assay kit from Monobind Inc. Spectrophotometric methods described by Hashim and Schuttringer, and Bassey et al.
The level of significance P-value was set at less than 0. The subjects were gender unmatched but predominantly male in both case and control participants Despite the regular transfusion therapy, significant decrease in haematocrit and haemoglobin levels Although iron overload was not reported in the case subjects, serum iron indices serum iron and ferritin were significantly P 0.
Serum antioxidant vitamins A, E and copper were significantly lower P0. Disruption of pro- and anti-oxidant balance is inevitably followed by oxidative stress Simseket al. Higher ferritin content was directly linked to the accumulation of iron in the tissues of the patients. However, iron overload was not observed in the case subjects largely due to the low transfusion rate.
This finding is inconsistent with Cid et al. The result of the current study indicate that the subjects were significantly deficient of serum antioxidant vitamins A and E.
Similar results have been described in other studies by Tesoriereet al. Ironically, non-transfused non-iron overloaded patients with SCD have also demonstrated low levels vitamins A and E due to chronic inflammation Buisonet al.
Similarly, Arruda et al. There was no iron overload in the present study that could promote iron-induced oxidative stress that consumes the antioxidant vitamins.
In addition to the vitamins, abundant evidence demonstrates the role of micronutrients in protecting against free radical-induced oxidative damage Rostanet al. Similarly, Mansi et al. Regular blood transfusion which predisposes to iron overload has been suggested to increase zinc level and prevent the zinc deficiency Alexander et al.
However, the subjects in the current study were regularly transfused but there was no iron overload noticed. Therefore, elevated zinc level observed in the current study might have been induced by decreased iron accumulation absence of iron overload orabnormal glomerular filtration of zinc as seen in chronic haemolysis Mansi et al.
This phenomenon can be exploited in transfusion-dependent subjects to prevent iron overload and its attendant consequences by maintaining normal zinc level.1 EXPERIMENT 7 Spectrophotometric Iron Analysis Spectrophotometric methods of analysis are fast, relatively simple and very widely applied.
They rely on the fact that electromagnetic radiation may be absorbed by matter. Waste materials from metal mining, such as mineral tailings, often contain significant amounts of potentially valuable metals particularly where, as in many historic operations, the efficiency of flotation technologies used to concentrate target minerals was not as good as those currently available.
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The Public Inspection page on leslutinsduphoenix.com offers a preview of documents scheduled to appear in the next day's Federal Register issue. The Public Inspection page may also include documents scheduled for later issues, at the request of the issuing agency. Water Quality 1 - Spectrophotometric Determination of Iron in Drinking Water Introduction The safety of drinking water is a very important public health issue.