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Italic type was first used by Aldus Manutius and his press in Venice in The choice of italics in business writing italic type, rather than the roman type in general use at the time, was apparently made to suggest informality in editions designed for leisure reading. We have printed, and are now publishing, the Satires of Juvenal and Persius in a very small format, so that they may more conveniently be held in the hand and learned by heart not to speak of being read by everyone.
The capital letters were upright capitals on the model of Roman square capitalsshorter than the ascending lower-case italic letters, and were used at the start of each line followed by a clear space before the first lower-case letter.
The Venetian Senate gave Aldus exclusive right to its use, a patent confirmed by three successive Popesbut it was widely counterfeited as early as The Italians called the character Aldino, while others called it Italic.
Italics spread rapidly; historian Hendrik Vervliet dates the first production of italics in Paris to The first printer known to have used them was Johann or Johannes Singriener in Vienna inand the practice spread to Germany, France and Belgium. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations.
Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. December Here is an example of normal roman and true italics text: Example text set in both roman and italic type Here is the same text as oblique text: The same example text set in oblique type True italic styles are traditionally somewhat narrower than roman fonts.
Below are some examples, besides the slant, of other possible differences between roman and italic type that vary according to how the types are designed. Here are the illustrated transformations from roman to italic: Cyrillic characters in italics and nonitalics None of these differences are required in an italic; some, like the "p" variant, do not show up in the majority of italic fonts, while others, like the "a" and "f" variants, are in almost every italic.
Other common differences include: Double-loop g replaced by single-loop version. Different closing height where the forked stroke intersects with the stem e. Bracketed serifs if any replaced by hooked serifs. Tail of Q replaced by tilde as in, for example, the Garamond typeface.
Less common differences include a descender on the z and a ball on the finishing stroke of an h, which curves back to resemble a b somewhat. Sometimes the w is of a form taken from old German typefaces, in which the left half is of the same form as the n and the right half is of the same form as the v in the same typeface.
There also exist specialized ligatures for italics, such as when sp is formed by a curl atop the s that reaches the small ascender at the top of the p.
In addition to these differences in shape of letters, italic lowercases usually lack serifs at the bottoms of strokes, since a pen would bounce up to continue the action of writing. Instead they usually have one-sided serifs that curve up on the outstroke contrast the flat two-sided serifs of a roman font.
Four ampersands in regular and italic styles. Outside the regular alphabetthere are other italic types for symbols: Ampersand resembles an ET ligature more than the Roman version e. ITC Garamond Asterisk is rotated instead of slanted e. Question mark resembles a reversed Latin S.
Usage[ edit ] A common view of when to use italics and bold text. An additional option for emphasis is to use small capitals for a word or name to stand out.
This is called stress in speech. The titles of works that stand by themselves, such as books including those within a larger seriesalbums, paintings, plays, and periodicals: Works that appear within larger works, such as short stories, poems, or newspaper articles, are not italicized, but merely set off in quotation marks.
When italics are unavailable, such as on a typewriter or websites that do not support formatting, an underscore or quotes are often used instead.
Mentioning a word as an example of a word rather than for its semantic content see use—mention distinction: Using a letter or number mentioned as itself: John was annoyed; they had forgotten the h in his name once again.
When she saw her name beside the 1 on the rankings, she finally had proof that she was the best. Introducing or defining terms, especially technical terms or those used in an unusual or different way: Oblique type or slanted roman, sloped roman is type that is slanted, but lacking cursive letterforms, with features like a non-descending f and double-storey a, unlike "true italics".
Many sans-serif typefaces use oblique designs sometimes called "sloped roman" styles instead of italic ones; some have both italic and oblique variants.In typography, italic type is a cursive font based on a stylized form of calligraphic handwriting.
Owing to the influence from calligraphy, italics normally slant slightly to the leslutinsduphoenix.coms are a way to emphasise key points in a printed text, or when quoting a speaker a way to show which words they stressed.
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Prior to computers, people were taught to underline titles of books and plays and to surround chapters, articles, songs, and other shorter works in quotation marks. Editing and Writing for You; Social Networking; Problems working with words or proofing your own writing?
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