International students Overview The Master of Public Administration at Exeter is designed to help you meet the challenge of shaping and delivering effective public services.
Other compelling reasons of work division are the following: Human nature — Men differ in nature, capacity and skill, and gain greatly in dexterity by specialization; b.
Time — The same man cannot be at two places at the same time; and c. Space — The range of knowledge and skill is so great that a man cannot within his life-span know more than a small fraction of it.
To illustrate further, a shoe factory having 1, men working on shoe-making have to do these procedures: If each man will do all the procedures alone, there will be pairs of shoes to be produced in one day.
But if the men will be divided to work on each procedure, the number of production will be twice as many in a day. This is because it makes possible the better utilization of the varying skills and aptitudes of the different Public administration notes and encourages the development of specialization.
It also eliminates the time that is lost when a workman turns from a knife, to a punch, to a needle and awl, to a hammer, and moves from table to bench, to anvil to stool.
The introduction of machinery accentuates the division of work.
Specialized skills are developed not only in connection with machines and tools but also on the nature of materials handled e. They also arise in activities which center in a complicated series of interrelated concepts, principles, and techniques.
These are most clearly recognized in the professions involving application of scientific knowledge like engineering, Public administration notes, chemistry, law, ministry, teaching, and other fields. The volume of work involve in man-hours. This is about the working hours of a worker in an organization whether part-time or full-time.
The technology and custom at a given time and place. In a church for example, custody and cleaning is by custom the work of the sexton. The subdivision of work must not pass beyond physical division into organic division. In the case of a cow, you cannot let front half of the body to be in the pasture grazing and the other half in the barn being milked.
However, there is an element of reasoning in a circle that will test whether an activity is organic or not and whether it is divisible or not. An illustration in building a house could be done better through the presence of an architect who will make the plan so that division of labor is properly disseminated to the workers.
In this way, each skilled worker could know what to do and when to do it. It will also reduce spoilage of materials and the time spent in building the house will be reduced. Letting only one man to do all the work will just be a menace.
The more the work is subdivided, the greater is the need of overall supervision and co-ordination.
Co-ordination must be won by intelligent, vigorous, persistent and organized effort. By organization — by interrelating the subdivisions of work by allotting them to men who are placed in a structure of authority, so that the work may be co-ordinated by orders of superiors to subordinates, reaching from top to the bottom of the entire enterprise.
By dominance of an idea — this requires the development of intelligent singleness of purpose in the minds and wills of those who are working together as a group, so that each worker will of his own accord fit his task into the whole with skill and enthusiasm.
These two principles of coordination should both be utilized to be effective. Size and time are the great limiting factors in the development of co-ordination.
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The question of coordination must be approached with different emphasis in small and in large enterprises; in simple and in complex situations; in stable and in new or changing organizations. There is a need to establish a single executive authority in the organization.
Here are some steps in building up between the executive at the center and the subdivisions of work on the periphery: Define the job to be done, such as the furnishing of pure water to all of the people and industries within a given area at the lowest possible cost; 2. Provide a director to see that the objective is realized; 3.
Establish and perfect the structure of authority between the director and the ultimate work subdivisions.
The fourth step is the central concern of the theory of organization. It is the function of the organization to enable the director to co-ordinate and energize all of the sub-divisions of work so that the major objective may be achieved efficiently. Based on previous research studies, the chief executive of an organization can deal with only a few immediate subordinates.
The number of subordinates is determined by the nature of the work, the nature of the executive, and the size and function of the organization. Unity of command refers to those who are commanded, not to those who issue the commands.
The group must be unified by the work they perform, the processes they utilize, and should have the same purpose. In single unit work divisions which are non-homogeneous in work, in technology, or in purpose will encounter danger of friction and inefficiency.
In the same manner, a unit based on a given specialization cannot be given technical direction by a layman.Pawan sir Notes Public Administration PDF Free IAS Optional. Pawan sir Notes Public Administration PDF Free IAS Optional – This is one of the Most Popular Optional Subject in UPSC Civil Services leslutinsduphoenix.com of the Students Choose this Subject as A Optional Subject For UPSC Exam.
Objectives for this course are: concept of public administration, management, organization, evolution of concept of public administration, role of government, core fictions of public manager, structure of government and. Press Release Location Release Date ; Thanksgiving Travel Advisory: Drive Safely and Make It to the Table Buckle up, drive sober, and pay attention.
Public Administration Strategy. The recent performance of Public Administration has not been very encouraging. A number of factors have contributed to the same which include relatively tougher papers; abstract questions; stricter evaluation; less generous marking; mysterious scaling/moderation by .
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