Contact Author Introduction Migration is the movement of people from one place to another due to various motivations such as search of employment, educational facilities e. Excessive rural to urban migration has led to negative impacts on African countries overall development as it has led to the growth of slums, unemployment e. The costs associated with rural-urban migration often outweigh the benefits, leading to excessive urbanization.
Primate city The dominant conurbation s of a country can benefit to a greater extent from the same things cities offer, making them magnets for not just the non-urban population, but also urban and suburban population from other cities.
Dominant conurbations are quite often primate citiesbut do not have to be.
For instance Greater Manila is rather a conurbation than a city: Economic effect[ edit ] As cities develop, effects can include a dramatic increase and change in costs, often pricing the local working class out of the market, including such functionaries as employees of the local municipalities.
The drive for rapid urban growth and often efficiency can lead to less equitable urban development. Think tanks such as the Overseas Development Institute have proposed policies that encourage labor-intensive growth as a means of absorbing the influx of low-skilled and unskilled labor.
In many cases, the rural-urban low skilled or unskilled migrant workers, attracted by economic opportunities in urban areas, cannot find a job and afford housing in cities and have to dwell in slums. Urbanization is often viewed as a negative trend, but there are positives in the reduction of expenses in commuting and transportation Rural urban migration and ways improving opportunities for jobs, education, housing, and transportation.
Living in cities permits individuals and families to take advantage of the opportunities of proximity and diversity. In many developing countries where economies are growing, the growth is often erratic and based on a small number of industries.
For young people in these countries barriers exist such as, lack of access to financial services and business advisory services, difficulty in obtaining credit to start a business, and lack of entrepreneurial skills, in order for them to access opportunities in these industries.
Investment in human capital so that young people have access to quality education and infrastructure to enable access to educational facilities is imperative to overcoming economic barriers. An urban heat island is formed when industrial and urban areas produce and retain heat.
Much of the solar energy that reaches rural areas is consumed by evaporation of water from vegetation and soil. Vehicles, factories and industrial and domestic heating and cooling units release even more heat. When rain occurs in these large cities, the rain filters down the pollutants such as CO2 and other green house gases in the air onto the ground below.
Then, those chemicals are washed directly into rivers, streams and oceans, causing a decline in water quality and damaging marine ecosystems. First, the birth rate of new urban dwellers falls immediately to replacement rate, and keeps falling, reducing environmental stresses caused by population growth.
Secondly, emigration from rural areas reduces destructive subsistence farming techniques, such as improperly implemented slash and burn agriculture. The mix of changing environmental conditions and the growing population of urban regions, according to UN experts, will strain basic sanitation systems and health care, and potentially cause a humanitarian and environmental disaster.
However, residents in poor urban areas such as slums and informal settlements suffer "disproportionately from disease, injury, premature death, and the combination of ill-health and poverty entrenches disadvantage over time. While urbanization is associated with improvements in public hygienesanitation and access to health careit also entails changes in occupational, dietary and exercise patterns.
Overall, body mass index and cholesterol levels increase sharply with national income and the degree of urbanization. Throughout the world, as communities transition from rural to more urban societies, the number of people effected by asthma increases.
The odds of reduced rates of hospitalization and death from asthmas has decreased for children and young adults in urbanized municipalities in Brazil.
Similar to areas in the United States with increasing urbanization, people living in growing cities in low income countries experience high exposure to air pollution, which increases the prevalence and severity of asthma among these populations. Researchers suggest that this difference in hazard ratios is due to the higher levels of air pollution and exposure to environmental allergens found in urban areas.
Furthermore, any amount of exposure to high levels of air pollution have shown long term effects on the Foxp3 region.
The simplest explanation is that areas with a higher population density are surrounded by a greater availability of goods. Committing crimes in urbanized areas is also more feasible. Modernization has led to more crime as well. There is a greater awareness of the income gap between the rich and poor due to modern media.
This leads to feelings of deprivation which can lead to crime. In some regions where urbanization happens in wealthier areas, a rise in property crime and a decrease in violent crime is seen. Some factors include per capita income, income inequality, and overall population size. There is also a smaller association between unemployment rate, police expenditures and crime.
These areas have less social cohesion, and therefore less social control. This is evident in the geographical regions that crime occurs in.The only way we can stop people's migration from rural to urban if we can provide equal opportunities in rural area, means source of income, good education, and most important basic infrastructure e.g.
clean drinking water, electricity, house, toilets, transport, roads, communication, banking. Rural-urban migration is due to several factors including poverty.
Therefore, we should avoid it due to its negative impacts. This article reveals how. Create employment opportunities to reduce on mobility of labor. Promote agriculture and farming in order to avoid poverty among people.
Improve on. Rural to urban migration is an old culture. People do migrate to cities in search of better opportunities. But, what exactly do they achieve after this troublesome migration is a big leslutinsduphoenix.com get lured for big schools and colleges, better employment, better infrastructure etc.
when they plan a migration. The following are the ways on how rural areas in Tanzania can be developed hence an alternative discouraging rural to urban migration.
Improving rural farmer’s access to the inputs and services required to increase agricultural productivity. RURAL TO URBAN MIGRATION: CONNECTING OPPORTUNITIES, ADDRESSING GAPS AND HARNESSING THE POTENTIAL OF URBANISATION.
Rural-Urban Migration Dialogue Series September Akhter Hameed Khan Resource Centre CONTENTS 1. ABSTRACT The purpose of this paper is to explore ways to build on . The regression analysis shows that rural-urban migration contributes significantly towards the development of their rural communities through monetary remittances and the involvement of the rural-urban migrants in community development projects.
International Journal of Population Research is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal .