Such perceptions have been acquired and reinforced through exposure to televised reports of fascinating devices and news articles about them, science fiction books and movies, and our use of equipment such as automobiles, telephones, computers, and automatic teller machines.
While this focus on devices and machines seems to be very prevalent among the general population, many educators also hold a similar perspective. Since Pressey developed the first teaching machine in Nazzaro,technology applications in public schools and post-secondary education institutions have tended to focus on the acquisition and use of equipment such as film projectors, audio and video tape recorders, overhead projectors, and computers.
Since the early s, however, a trend has emerged that is changing the way we perceive technology in education.
At that time, educators began considering the concept of instructional technology. Subsequently, after considerable deliberation, a Congressional Commission on Instructional Technology concluded that technology involved more than just hardware.
The Commission concluded that, in addition to the use of devices and equipment, instructional technology also involves a systematic way of designing and delivering instruction.
With the rapid development of microcomputer technology, increased research on instructional procedures, and the invention of new devices and equipment to aid those with health problems, physical disabilities, and sensory impairments, the latter third of the 20th century has borne witness to a very dramatic evolution.
The current perspective is a broad one in which six types of technology are recognized: Such approaches typically include the use of well-defined objectives, precise instructional procedures The 9 core tecnologys essay upon the tasks that students are required to learn, small units of instruction that are carefully sequenced, a high degree of teacher activity, high levels of student involvement, liberal use of reinforcement, and careful monitoring of student performance.
Most often, machines and equipment are not involved when implementing various technologies of teaching; however, they can be, as will be seen later.
Instructional technology is a systematic way of designing, carrying out, and evaluating the total process of learning and teaching in terms of specific objectives, based on research in human learning and communication, and employing a combination of human and nonhuman resources to bring about more effective instruction.
The use of telecommunication systems, particularly the Internet Williams, and its World Wide Web component Williams,have great promise for use in classrooms and for distance education.
Computer software systems are now available that can be used to manage the delivery of instruction via the Web. It is important to note the various components of the above definition and to realize that technology is actually a tool for the delivery of instruction.
In this conceptualization, technological devices are considered as means to an end and not an end in and of themselves. Use of technology cannot compensate for instruction that is poorly designed or implemented. Assistive technologies include mechanical, electronic, and microprocessor-based equipment, non-mechanical and non-electronic aids, specialized instructional materials, services, and strategies that people with disabilities can use either to a assist them in learning, b make the environment more accessible, c enable them to compete in the workplace, d enhance their independence, or e otherwise improve their quality of life.
In addition to seemingly miraculous surgical procedures that are technology-based, many individuals are dependent upon medical technology to stay alive or otherwise enable people to function outside of hospitals and other medical settings.
It is not uncommon to see people in their home and community settings who use medical technology. For example, artifical limbs and hip and knee implants can help people function in the environment. Cochlear implants can often improve the hearing of people with auditory nerve damage.
Some devices provide respiratory assistance through oxygen supplementation and mechanical ventilation. Others, such as cardiorespiratory monitors and pulse oximeters are used as surveillance devices that alert an attendant to a potential vitality problem.
Nutritive assistive devices can assist in tube feeding or elimination through ostomies. In addition to keeping people alive, technologies such as these can enable people to fully participate in school, community, and work activities.
For example, computer software such as database programs can be used to store and rapidly retrieve information; word processing programs can be used to easily edit text material; FAX machines can facilitate the transmission of written documents over long distances; expert system computer programs can aid in decision making, such as weather forecasting; and video conferencing facilities can reduce the need for travel.
The Internet, and its World Wide Web component, is the most prominent example of information technology.
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The ERIC system enables people to search and locate much of the world's educational literature on a given topic. It is important to remember, however, that these also may be used in combination.
For example, a high school student who is paralyzed may require a respirator to assist in breathing medical technology. In a course designed to teach about telecommunications, that individual may use a voice-operated computer assistive technology to pursue a tutorial about how to design databases from a software program instructional technology that was designed according to principles of near-errorless learning technology of teaching.Several embedded multi core processors had been researched separately, by some standards using Open MP, including the extension of Open MP in a few cases.
A multi core processor is a computing component which can have two, four, six cores, eight cores, ten cores or more. Embedded computing operator different form main stream PCS.
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Be able to describe some impacts that emerging technologies can have on everyday life. New Technologies. Key Words: Companies have already produced discs that use holographic layers that each have the potential to hold a massive terabytes.
NOTE: This is the equivalent of over standard Blu-ray discs.
Wireless power transfer may be used to power up wireless information transmitters or receivers. This type of communication is known as wireless powered communication (WPC).