Grief and bereavement Stage One: Shiva After the burial, the immediate mourners return to a home called the "shiva house," to begin a seven day period of intense mourning.
Immediately, landlords and wealthier peasants had their land holdings tombstone meaning business plan redistributed to poorer peasants. In the agricultural sectors, crops deemed by the Party to be "full of evil", such as opiumwere destroyed and replaced with crops such as rice.
Within the Party, there was a major debate about redistribution. A moderate faction within the party and Politburo member Liu Shaoqi argued that change should be gradual and any collectivization of the peasantry should wait until industrializationwhich could provide the agricultural machinery for mechanized farming.
A more radical faction led by Mao Zedong argued that the best way to finance industrialization was for the government to take control of agriculture, thereby establishing a monopoly over grain distribution and supply. This would allow the state to buy at a low price and sell much higher, thus raising the capital necessary for the industrialization of the country.
Agricultural collectives and other social changes[ edit ] Sending government officials to work in the countryside, Beforepeasants had farmed their own small pockets of land and observed traditional practices—festivals, banquets, and paying homage to ancestors.
Therefore, it was proposed that the peasants should be brought under Party control by the establishment of agricultural collectives which would also facilitate the sharing of tools and draft animals. From onward peasants were encouraged to form and join collective-farming associations, which would supposedly increase their efficiency without robbing them of their own land or restricting their livelihoods.
Mao insisted that the communes must produce more grain for the cities and tombstone meaning business plan foreign exchange from exports. Apart from progressive taxation on each household's harvest, the state introduced a system of compulsory state purchases of grain at fixed prices to build up stockpiles for famine-relief and meet the terms of its trade agreements with the Soviet Union.
Rationing was also introduced in the cities to curb 'wasteful consumption' and encourage savings which were deposited in state-owned banks and thus became available for investmentand although food could be purchased from state-owned retailers the market price was higher than that for which it had been purchased.
This too was done in the name of discouraging excessive consumption. Besides these economic changes the Party implemented major social changes in the countryside including the banishing of all religious and mystic institutions and ceremonies, replacing them with political meetings and propaganda sessions.
Attempts were made to enhance rural education and the status of women allowing them to initiate divorce if they desired and ending foot-bindingchild marriage and opium addiction. The old system of internal passports the hukou was introduced inpreventing inter-county travel without appropriate authorization.
Highest priority was given to the urban proletariat for whom a welfare state was created. The first phase of collectivization resulted in only modest improvements in output. Famine along the mid-Yangzi was averted in through the timely allocation of food-aid, but in the Party's response was to increase the proportion of the harvest collected by the state to insure against further disasters.
Moderates within the Party, including Zhou Enlaiargued for a reversal of collectivization on the grounds that claiming the bulk of the harvest for the state had made the people's food-security dependent upon the constant, efficient, and transparent functioning of the government.
In retrospect, some have come to argue that this was a ploy to allow critics of the regime, primarily intellectuals but also low ranking members of the party critical of the agricultural policies, to identify themselves.
He was critical of Khrushchev's reversal of Stalinist policies and alarmed by the uprisings that had taken place in East GermanyPoland and Hungaryand the perception that the USSR was seeking " peaceful coexistence " with the Western powers. Mao had become convinced that China should follow its own path to communism.
According to Jonathan Mirsky, a historian and journalist specializing in Chinese affairs, China's isolation from most of the rest of the world, along with the Korean Warhad accelerated Mao's attacks on his perceived domestic enemies.
It led him to accelerate his designs to develop an economy where the regime would get maximum benefit from rural taxation. The first Secretary of the Central Committee Nikita Khrushchev proposed a goal to not only catch up with but exceed the United States in industrial output in the next 15 years through peaceful competition.
Mao Zedong was so inspired by the slogan that China put forward its own objective: I can also say, 15 years later, we may catch up with or exceed the UK. The central idea behind the Great Leap was that rapid development of China's agricultural and industrial sectors should take place in parallel.
The hope was to industrialize by making use of the massive supply of cheap labour and avoid having to import heavy machinery.
The government also sought to avoid both social stratification and technical bottlenecks involved in the Soviet model of development, but sought political rather than technical solutions to do so. Distrusting technical experts,  Mao and the party sought to replicate the strategies used in its s regrouping in Yan'an following the Long March: People's commune In the beginning, commune members were able to eat for free at the commune canteens.
This changed when food production slowed to a halt. An experimental commune was established at Chayashan in Henan in April Here for the first time private plots were entirely abolished and communal kitchens were introduced.
At the Politburo meetings in Augustit was decided that these people's communes would become the new form of economic and political organization throughout rural China. By the end of the year approximately 25, communes had been set up, with an average of 5, households each.
The communes were relatively self-sufficient co-operatives where wages and money were replaced by work points. Based on his fieldwork, Ralph A.Mercy Hospital Shooting ScenesScenes from Mercy Hospital where a shooter hit four people inside and outside the leslutinsduphoenix.com least two people are confirmed dead.
In the cities, there is often no appearance of a grave at all; a tall, slender marble tombstone, elaborately lettred, gilded and painted, marks the burial place, and this is surmounted by a turban, so carved and shaped as to signify the dead man's rank in life. leslutinsduphoenix.com is the #1 vanity license plate resource on the web.
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