The number of alternatives can vary among items as long as all alternatives are plausible. Plausible alternatives serve as functional distractors, which are those chosen by students that have not achieved the objective but ignored by students that have achieved the objective. There is little difference in difficulty, discrimination, and test score reliability among items containing two, three, and four distractors. Avoid complex multiple choice items, in which some or all of the alternatives consist of different combinations of options.
Use them wisely and sparingly, and never use one without knowing its precise meaning. Implied or Conceptual Transitions Not every paragraph transition requires a conjunctive adverb or transitional phrase; often, your logic will appear through a word or concept common to the last sentence of the preceding paragraph and the topic sentence of the following paragraph.
For example, the end of a paragraph by Bruce Catton uses a demonstrative adjective, "these," to modify the subject of the topic sentence so that it will refer to a noun in the last sentence of the preceding paragraph: Grant and Robert E.
Lee met in the parlor of a modest house at Appomattox Court House, Virginia, These men were bringing the Civil War to its virtual finish. In this transition by Kori Quintana in an article about radiation and health problems, the connection between the paragraphs resides in the common term of "my family": What I did not know when I began researching the connection between radioactivity and genetic damage was that I would find the probably cause of my own family's battle with cancer and other health problems.
Hailing from Utah, the state known for its Mormon population's healthy lifestyle, my family has been plagued with a number of seemingly unrelated health problems.
The first paragraph outlines the origins of Quintana's research into the connection between radiation exposure and disease, and ends with the revelation that her own family had been affected by radiation.
The next paragraph discusses her family's health history. Each has its own singular purpose and topic, yet the first paragraph leads to the topic of the second through a common term.
Paragraph transitions can expand the range of discussion as well as narrow it with an example, as Quintana's transition does; this selection from an article by Deborah Cramer on the ecological impact of the fishing industry shows how a single instance of overfishing indicates a world-wide problem: The large yearly catches, peaking at million pounds from the Gulf of Maine inwiped out the fishery.
It has yet to recover. The propensity to ravage the sea is by no means unique to New England. The northern cod fishery in Canada is closed indefinitely. In Newfoundland more than 20, fishermen and fish processors were abruptly put out of work in when the government shut down the Grand Banks Here, the transition alludes to the entire preceding section about New England fishing.
Although Cramer managed this transition in a single sentence, transitions between large sections of an essay sometimes require entire paragraphs to explain their logic.
Proofreading Paragraph Transitions At some point in your editing process, look at the end of each paragraph and see how it connects to the first sentence of the paragraph following it. If the connection seems missing or strained, improve the transition by clarifying your logic or rearranging the paragraphs.
Often, the best solution is cutting out a paragraph altogether, and replacing it with the right one.The strangest part about the continued personality cult of Robert E. Lee is how few of the qualities his admirers profess to see in him he actually possessed. Blaise Pascal? John Locke? Benjamin Franklin?
Henry David Thoreau? Cicero?
Woodrow Wilson? Dear Quote Investigator: I was planning to end a letter with the following remark. If I had more time, I would have written a shorter letter. Here's a great example of a proposal essay with simple and easy step-by-step instructions on how to write an effective paper.
Getting an A on a proposal paper is simple if you follow some simple steps. THE SPIKE. It was late-afternoon. Forty-nine of us, forty-eight men and one woman, lay on the green waiting for the spike to open. We were too tired to talk much. The free History: American research paper (Ulysses S.
Grant essay) presented on this page should not be viewed as a sample of our on-line writing service. If you need fresh and competent research / writing on History: American, use the professional writing service offered by our company. Ulysses S. Grant (April 27, – July 23, ) was a leading Union general in the American Civil War and the eighteenth President of the United States of America ( – ).