The most useful definition of the term as a noun seems to be an extremely liquid asset, measured in a standard unit of account and capable with certainty of discharging debts expressed in that unit. As applied to the United States at the present time, this definition includes in money the circulating stock of metallic small change, Federal Reserve Notes and other paper currency, and also the stock of commercial bank deposits with checking privileges. In rare cases where there are unusually sharp cleavages in attitudes and expectations within a given society, it may even imply different moneys for different groups within that society.
In what follows, citations to The Prince refer to chapter number e. Citations to the Discourses and to the Florentine Histories refer to book and chapter number e. Citations to the Art of War refer to book and sentence number in the Italian edition of Marchand, Farchard, and Masi and in the corresponding translation of Lynch e.
The Youth Machiavelli was born on May 3,to a somewhat distinguished family. He grew up in the Santo Spirito district of Florence. He had three siblings: Primavera, Margherita, and Totto. His mother was Bartolomea di Stefano Nelli.
His father was Bernardo, a doctor of law who spent a considerable part of his meager income on books and who seems to have been especially enamored of Cicero. He was studying Latin already by age seven and translating vernacular works into Latin by age twelve. When he was twelve, Machiavelli began to study under the priest Paolo da Ronciglione, a famous teacher who instructed many prominent humanists.
Machiavelli may have studied later under Marcello di Virgilio Adriani, a professor at the University of Florence. Inhe returns to the historical record by writing two letters in a dispute with the Pazzi family.
During this period, there were many important dates during this period.
The Pazzi conspiracy against the Medici occurred in Savonarola began to preach in Florence inthe same year that Lorenzo the Magnificent died and that Rodrigo Borgia ascended to the papacy as Alexander VI.
Inafter preaching elsewhere for several years, Savonarola returned to Florence and was assigned to San Marco.
On May 23,almost exactly a year later, he was hung and then burned at the stake with two other friars in the Piazza della Signoria.
The Official Not long after Savonarola was put to death, Machiavelli was appointed to serve under Adriani as head of the Second Chancery. Machiavelli was 29 and had no prior political experience. A month after he was appointed to the Chancery, he was also appointed to serve as Secretary to the Ten, the committee on war.
In November he undertook his first diplomatic assignment, which involved a brief trip to the city of Piombino. His first major mission was to the French court, from July to January Inhe would take three trips to the city of Pistoia, which was being torn to pieces by factional disputes P Over the next decade, he would undertake many other missions, some of which kept him away from home for months e.The domestic cat is a member of the cat family, the felids, which are a rapidly evolving family of mammals that share a common ancestor only 10–15 million years ago and include lions, tigers, cougars and many others.
Within this family, domestic cats (Felis catus) are part of the genus Felis, which is a group of small cats containing about seven species (depending upon classification scheme). Animal rights is the idea in which some, or all, non-human animals are entitled to the possession of their own lives and that their most basic interests—such as the need to avoid suffering—should be afforded the same consideration as similar interests of human beings..
Its advocates oppose the assignment of moral value and fundamental protections on the basis of species membership alone. Niccolò Machiavelli (—) Machiavelli was a 16th century Florentine philosopher known primarily for his political ideas.
His two most famous philosophical books, The Prince and the Discourses on Livy, were published after his leslutinsduphoenix.com philosophical legacy remains enigmatic, but that result should not be surprising for a thinker who . The domestic cat is a member of the cat family, the felids, which are a rapidly evolving family of mammals that share a common ancestor only 10–15 million years ago and include lions, tigers, cougars and many others.
Within this family, domestic cats (Felis catus) are part of the genus Felis, which is a group of small cats containing about .
Humans and animals live together on earth, but as we increasingly reshape ecosystems to accommodate larger populations, technology, and increased consumption, animals are greatly affected.
From big cats to great apes, from penguins to boa constrictors, and from giraffes to termites, The Encyclopedia of Animals is a celebration of the immense diversity of .